Russian Fuel Products. Which ones are real?

The petroleum or fuel market is built around different fuel products. Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. The majority of petroleum is converted to petroleum products, which includes several classes of fuels.

We would like to concentrate more on Russian fuels most often used by scammers in soft and full corporate offers including different classifications like GOST and others.



CRUDE OIL


Crude Oil is commonly refined into various types of fuels but can be sold as it is.


Main Russian Crude


  • Urals is a mix of heavy oil of the Urals and the Volga region with light oil of Western Siberia. It is used as a basis for the pricing of the Russian export oil mixture. The density is 31.7 degrees API, sulfur content is 1.35%.

  • Siberian Light is a light West Siberian oil of Khanty-Mansiysk and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Districts. The density is 35.1 degrees API, sulfur content is 0.57%.


Other Russian Crude


  • ESPO is a grade of Siberian oil supplied via the East Siberia - Pacific Ocean (ESPO) pipeline mostly to the countries of Asia, as well as to the west coast of the USA. The density is 34.8 degrees API, sulfur content is 0.62%.

  • Sokol is a light crude oil brand. It is extracted as a part of the Sakhalin-1 project. The density is 37.7 degrees API, sulfur content is 0.23%.

  • Vityaz is a light low-sulfur oil brand produced as a part of the Sakhalin-2 project. Currently, the Vityaz oil is delivered via the Trans-Sakhalin pipeline system. The density is 34.6 degrees API, sulfur content is 0.22%.

  • ARCO or Arctic Oil is a heavy crude oil which became the first project in Russia to produce hydrocarbon resources on the shelf of the Arctic. The density is 24 degrees API, sulfur content is 2.3%.


REBCO (Russian Export Blend Crude Oil) was an unsuccessful project to create a new grade of Russian export oil mixture in 2006. REBCO quotes ceased to be updated in November 2013.


DIESEL FUEL


Diesel fuel is a liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel. There are 4 classifications in total used in Russia. Some of them fully comply with the specification of EN 590:2009 and some are designed for the local use only.


D2 used to be a type of diesel according to the Committee of Common Market Automobile Constructors. It was abolished in 1996 and a new ACEA classification took place instead.


GOST P 52368-2005


Russian diesel fuel is classified based on the sulfur content (types) and filterability temperature in climatic conditions of the area of use such as temperate climate (grades) and cold climate (classes).


Diesel Types (based on sulfur content):


  • Type I - no more than 350 mg/kg of sulfur

  • Type II - no more than 50 mg/kg of sulfur

  • Type III - no more than 10 mg/kg of sulfur


Diesel Grades (based on filterability temperature in a temperate climate):


  • Grade A - up to 5°C

  • Grade B - up to 0°C

  • Grade C - up to -5°C

  • Grade D - up to -10°С

  • Grade E - up to -15°C

  • Grade F - up to -20°C


Diesel Classes (based on filterability temperature in the cold climate):


  • Class 0 - up to -20°C

  • Class 1 - up to -26°C

  • Class 2 - up to -32°C

  • Class 3 - up to -38°C

  • Class 4 - up to -44°C


For example, Diesel Euro Grade C Type III corresponds to Euro 5 (EN 590:2009).


РТ ТС 013/2011


This is a Technical Regulation of the Customs Union between Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. According to this classification, there are 3 groups of diesel markings.


Group 1 (letters):


  • DT - diesel fuel for automotive diesel engines


Group 2 (letters indicating climatic conditions of use):


  • L - summer diesel (filterability temperature is not determined)

  • E - off-season diesel (-15°C)

  • Z - winter diesel (-20°C)

  • A - arctic diesel (-38°C)


Group 3 (symbols indicating the ecological class of diesel):


  • К2 - no more than 500 mg/kg of sulfur (not in use)

  • K3 - no more than 350 mg/kg of sulfur (as the GOST Р 52368-2005 Type I)

  • K4 - no more than 50 mg/kg of sulfur (as the GOST Р 52368-2005 Type II)

  • K5 - no more than 10 mg/kg of sulfur (as the GOST Р 52368-2005 Type III)


For example, DT - L - K5 corresponds to Euro 5 (EN 590:2009).


GOST 32511 - 2013


This standard consists of a combination of previously discussed classifications and is also active. The marking of diesel fuel includes the following groups of characters:


Product Name:


  • DT - diesel fuel for automotive diesel engines


Conditions of Use:


  • L - summer diesel (as the Diesel Grades A, B, C, D of GOST P 52368-2005)

  • E - off-season diesel (as the Diesel Grades E, F of GOST P 52368-2005)

  • Z - winter diesel (as the Diesel Classes 0, 1, 2, 3 of GOST P 52368-2005)

  • A - arctic diesel (as the Diesel Class 4 of GOST P 52368-2005)


Ecological Class of Fuel:


  • К2 - no more than 500 mg/kg of sulfur (as the Group 3 of РТ ТС 013/2011)

  • K3 - no more than 350 mg/kg of sulfur (as the GOST Р 52368-2005 Type I)

  • K4 - no more than 50 mg/kg of sulfur (as the GOST Р 52368-2005 Type II)

  • K5 - no more than 10 mg/kg of sulfur (as the GOST Р 52368-2005 Type III)


For example, DT - L - K5 corresponds to Euro 5 (EN 590:2009).


GOST 305 - 2013


This standard applies to diesel fuel for high-speed diesel and gas turbine engines of land and marine equipment. This fuel with a sulfur content of 2000 mg / kg is supplied by state defense order and for export. It is not allowed to be sold through public gas stations.

Classification:

  • L - summer diesel (an ambient temperature of minus 5°C and above)

It's marked with flash point and ecological class of fuel (ex. DT-L-40-K2)

  • E - off-season diesel (an ambient temperature of minus 15°C and above)

It's marked with filterability temperature and ecological class of fuel (ex. DT-E-minus 15-K2)

  • Z - winter diesel (an ambient temperature of up to minus 25/35°C)

It's marked with filterability temperature and ecological class of fuel (ex. DT-Z-minus 25-K2)

  • A - arctic diesel (an ambient temperature of minus 45°C and above)

It's marked with ecological class of fuel (ex. DT-A-K2)


You may find the product called "RUSSIA ORIGIN DIESEL GAS D2 OIL GOST 305-82" in many offers. Keep in mind that the GOST 305-82 was abolished on January 1, 2015!


GASOIL


Many scammers try to sell "Russian Diesel Gasoil". Gasoil is not a type of diesel - it's just one of the many diesel fuel components. Gasoil is also used as a raw material for Fluid Catalytic Cracking.



GASOLINE


Gasoline is a colorless petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines.


GOST 32513-2013


  • AI-80 - octane rating of at least 80

  • AI-92 - octane rating of at least 92 (for engines with a compression ratio of 8.0)

  • AI-95 - octane rating of at least 95 (for engines with a compression ratio of 9.0)

  • AI-98 - octane rating of at least 98

  • AI-100, 101, 102 - octane number respectively at least 100, 101, 102.


Naphtha


Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture heavier than gasoline. Previously it was used as a motor fuel for tractors. But since tractor fleet was transferred to diesel engines, naphtha lost its significance as a motor fuel. Now naphtha is mainly used as a raw material or an additive in the petrochemical industry.



AVIATION FUEL


Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft. There are two main types of aviation fuel:


  1. Aviation Gasoline (AVGAS) is made for and used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines in an aircraft.

  2. Jet Fuel is used in an aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.


Between the two types of aviation fuel the jet fuel is a point of interest among scammers. Jet Fuel in its turn is made for either subsonic aviation or supersonic aviation. These categories fall under different classification but we will focus only on GOST-10227-86 classification for subsonic aviation.


Main Jet Fuels


  • TS-1 is obtained by direct distillation of sulphurous oil (target fraction is 150-250°C). It's the most common type of jet fuel for subsonic aviation. According to its characteristics, it approximately corresponds to foreign Jet-A kerosene.

  • RT is obtained by hydro-treating straight-run kerosene fractions with boiling limits of 135-280°C. It fully complies with international standards, surpassing them in individual indicators. There are no foreign analogues for this jet fuel.


Other Jet Fuels


  • T-1 is a product of direct distillation of low-sulfur oil of naphthenic base with boiling limits of 130-280°C. Its production is very limited, and it's produced only in the first quality category.

  • T-1S is a product of distillation of low-sulfur oil of naphthenic base with boiling limits of 130-280°C. Only first grade fuel is produced and it's very limited.

  • T-2 is a product of distillation of crude oil of a wide fractional composition (60-280°C). This fuel is not produced and is considered to be reserve in relation to TS-1 and RT.


Jet A is primarily used in the United States. Jet A-1 is the standard specification fuel used in the rest of the world other than the former Soviet countries where TS-1 is the main standard of jet fuel.

Although Jet A-1 is not the standard specification fuel in Russia, it is still produced in few Russian refineries to satisfy the interests of the international market. A special GOST standard was developed for this type of Aviation Fuel called GOST 52050-2006.



MARINE FUEL


Marine Fuel is fuel used in maritime field. There are 2 main categories (distillate and residual fuels) and 3 standards or marine fuel used particularly in Russia:


GOST P 54299-2010


It's a Russian standard for all marine fuels that was adopted in 2010 (in full compliance with ISO 8217:2017).


Distillate Fuels


Categories (based on maritime fuel classification):


  • MGO - Marine Gas Oil is made from distillate only.

  • MDO - Marine Diesel Oil is a blend of gasoil and heavy fuel oil.


Classification (based on International and Russian standards):


  • DMX - kinematic viscosity at 40 °C is 1,400 - 5,500 mm2/s1

  • DMA - kinematic viscosity at 40 °C is 2,000 - 6,000 mm2/s1

  • DMZ - kinematic viscosity at 40 °C is 3,000 - 6,000 mm2/s1

  • DMB - kinematic viscosity at 40 °C is 2,000 - 11,000 mm2/s1


Residual Fuels


Categories (based on maritime fuel classification):


  • IFO - Intermediate Fuel Oil is blend of gasoil and heavy fuel oil, with less gasoil than marine diesel oil.


Classification (based on International and Russian standards):


  • RMA 10 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 10 mm2/s2

  • RMB 30 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 30 mm2/s2

  • RMD 80 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 80 mm2/s2

  • RME 180 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 180 mm2/s2

  • RMG 180 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 180 mm2/s2

  • RMG 380 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 380 mm2/s2

  • RMG 500 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 500 mm2/s2

  • RMG 700 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 700 mm2/s2

  • RMK 380 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 380 mm2/s2

  • RMK 500 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 500 mm2/s2

  • RMK 700 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 700 mm2/s2


GOST 10585-2013


It is a Russian standard for a naval fuel oil and mazut - a heavy residual fuel oil used in only Russian marine power plants.


  • F 5 - kinematic viscosity at 50 °C is 36.20 mm2/s2

  • M 40 - kinematic viscosity at 80 °C is 59 mm2/s2

  • M 100 - kinematic viscosity at 100 °C is 50 mm2/s2


TU 0252-014-00044434-2001


This is a Russian standard for a naval fuel oil used as a marine fuel and produced specifically for international marine power plants.


  • IFO 30 - contains 30-40% of medium distillate products (approximately corresponds to naval fuel oil F-5 and ISO-F-RMC 10).

  • IFO 180 - contains 8-15% of medium distillate products (approximately corresponds to fuel oil M 40 and ISO-F-RMF 25).

  • IFO 380 - contains 0–5% of medium distillate products (approximately corresponds to ISO-F-RMA 35).



MAZUT


Mazut is a heavy, low quality fuel oil, used in power plants and similar applications. In the United States and Western Europe, mazut is blended or broken down, with the end product being diesel. Mazut is almost exclusively manufactured in the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan.


There is only one type of Mazut being purchased from Russia is Mazut-100 (GOST 10585-2013). Mazut-100 is produced on the basis of atmospheric and vacuum distillation residues with the addition of heavy gas oil fractions. This product is typically used for larger boilers in producing steam since the energy value is high.



BITUMEN


Bitumen is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product. There are several types of bitumen used in Russia:


Construction Bitumens


GOST 6617-76:


  • BN 50/50 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 41-60 mm

  • BN 70/30 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 1-40 mm

  • BN 90/10 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 5-20 mm


Road Bitumens


GOST 22245-90:


  • BND 200/300 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 201-300 mm

  • BND 130/200 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 131-200 mm

  • BND 90/130 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 91-130 mm

  • BND 60/90 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 61-90 mm

  • BND 40/60 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 40-60 mm

  • BN 200/300 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 201-300 mm

  • BN 130/200 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 131-200 mm

  • BN 90/130 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 91-130 mm

  • BN 60/90 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 60-90 mm


GOST 33133-2014:


  • BND 130/200 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 131-200 mm

  • BND 100/130 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 101-130 mm

  • BND 70/100 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 71-100 mm

  • BND 50/70 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 51-70 mm

  • BND 35/50 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 36-50 mm

  • BND 20/35 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 20-35 mm


Roofing Bitumens


GOST 9548-74:


  • BNK 40/180 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 160-210 mm

  • BNK 45/190 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 160-220 mm

  • BNK 90/30 - needle penetration depth at 25°C is 25-35 mm



PETROLEUM COKE


Petcoke is a solid residue of the secondary processing of oil or petroleum products. It is used for the manufacture of electrodes and corrosion-resistant equipment.


GOST 22898-78


  • KNPS-SM is obtained by coking in cubes of pyrolysis resin for manufacture of carbon structural materials of special purposes.

  • KNPS-KM is obtained by coking in cubes of pyrolysis resin for manufacture of carbon structural materials.

  • KNG is obtained by coking in cubes of oil residue for manufacture of graphite products.

  • KZG is obtained by slow coking for manufacture of graphite products.

  • KZA Top Grade is obtained by slow coking for aluminum production.

  • KZA First Grade is obtained by slow coking for aluminum production.

  • KNA is obtained by coking in cubes of oil residue for aluminum production.

  • KZO is obtained by slow coking for production of abrasives and other products.

2,795 views

Recent Posts

See All